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The earliest occurrence of this name dates from the 11th-century Song dynasty , when there was already a river confluence and a town with this name in the area.
How the name should be understood has been disputed, but Chinese historians have concluded that during the Tang dynasty , the area of modern-day Shanghai was under the sea level, so the land appeared to be literally "on the sea".
The first five-star hotel in the city was named after Huating. The western part of modern-day Shanghai was inhabited years ago.
He ordered the excavation of the Huangpu River. Established in the fifth year of the Tang Tianbao era , it developed into what historically called a "giant town of the Southeast", with thirteen temples and seven pagodas.
Mi Fu , a scholar and artist of the Song dynasty, served as its mayor. The port experienced thriving trade with provinces along the Yangtze and the Chinese coast, as well as with foreign countries such as Japan and Silla.
By the end of the Song dynasty, the center of trading had moved downstream of the Wusong River to Shanghai. Two important events helped promote Shanghai's developments in the Ming dynasty.
A city wall was built for the first time in to protect the town from raids by Japanese pirates. This honor was usually reserved for prefectural capitals and not normally given to a mere county seat such as Shanghai.
Scholars have theorized that this likely reflected the town's economic importance, as opposed to its low political status. As a result of these two critical decisions, Shanghai became the major trade port for all of the lower Yangtze region by , despite still being at the lowest administrative level in the political hierarchy.
In the 19th century, international attention to Shanghai grew due to European recognition of its economic and trade potential at the Yangtze.
During the First Opium War — , British forces occupied the city. Britain, France, and the United States all carved out outside the walled city of Shanghai, which was still ruled by the Chinese.
Between and , the Taiping rebels twice attacked Shanghai and destroyed the city's eastern and southern suburbs, but failed to take the city.
The French opted out of the Shanghai Municipal Council and maintained its own concession to the south and southwest.
Japan built the first factories in Shanghai, which was soon copied by other foreign powers. All this international activity gave Shanghai the nickname "the Great Athens of China".
The golden age of Shanghai began with its elevation to municipality on 7 July The plan included a public museum, library, sports stadium, and city hall, which were partially constructed before being interrupted by the Japanese invasion.
The city flourished, becoming a primary commercial and financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the s. By , Shanghai had become the world's fifth largest city and home to 70, foreigners.
The Bund in the late s seen from the French Concession. Nanking Road modern-day East Nanjing Road in the s. Shanghai Park Hotel was the tallest building in Asia for decades.
On 28 January , Japanese forces invaded Shanghai while the Chinese resisted. More than 10, shops and hundreds of factories and public buildings  were destroyed, leaving Zhabei district ruined.
About 18, civilians were either killed, injured, or declared missing. People who stayed in the occupied city suffered on a daily basis, experiencing hunger, oppression, or death.
A side-effect of the Japanese invasion of Shanghai was the Shanghai Ghetto. They traveled from Keidan , Lithuania across Russia by railroad to the Vladivostok from where they traveled by ship to Kobe, Japan.
However, the Jewish refugees' stay in Kobe was short as the Japanese government transferred them to Shanghai by November Other Jewish refugees found haven in Shanghai, not through Sugihara, but came on ships from Italy.
The refugees from Europe were interned into a cramped ghetto in the Hongkou District,  and after the Japanese invasion of Pearl Harbor, even the Iraqi Jews who had been living in Shanghai from before the outbreak of WWII were interned.
Among the refugees in the Shanghai Ghetto was the Mirrer Yeshiva , including its students and faculty. On 3 September , the Chinese Army liberated the Ghetto and most of the Jews left over the next few years.
By , there were only one hundred Jews remaining in Shanghai. Under the new People's Republic of China PRC , Shanghai was one of only three municipalities not merged into neighboring provinces the others being Beijing and Tianjin.
After the war, Shanghai's economy was restored—from to , the city's agricultural and industrial output increased by As the industrial center of China with the most skilled industrial workers, Shanghai became a center for radical leftism during the s and s.
The radical leftist Jiang Qing and her three allies, together the Gang of Four , were based in the city. About 11, people were unjustly persecuted to death.
Yet, even during the most tumultuous times of the revolution, Shanghai was able to maintain economic production with positive annual growth rate.
Since , Shanghai has been a comparatively heavy contributor of tax revenue to the central government; in , the city's contribution in tax revenue was greater than investment received in the past 33 years combined.
In , Deng Xiaoping finally permitted Shanghai to initiate economic reforms, which reintroduced foreign capital to the city and developed the Pudong district, resulting in the birth of Lujiazui.
The land is formed by the Yangtze's natural deposition and modern land reclamation projects. As such, it has sandy soil , and skyscrapers are to be built with deep concrete piles to avoid sinking into the soft ground.
It is roughly equidistant from Beijing and Guangzhou , bordering the East China Sea to the east, Zhejiang to the south, and Jiangsu to the west and north.
Shanghai is located on an alluvial plain. As such, the vast majority of its 6, Downtown Shanghai is bisected by the Huangpu River, a man-made tributary of the Yangtze created by order of Lord Chunshen during the Warring States period.
The central financial district, Lujiazui, has been established on the east bank of the Huangpu Pudong. Along Shanghai's eastern shore, the destruction of local wetlands due to the construction of Pudong International Airport has been partially offset by the protection and expansion of a nearby shoal, Jiuduansha , as a nature preserve.
Shanghai has a humid subtropical climate Köppen Cfa , with an average annual temperature of Winters are chilly and damp—northwesterly winds from Siberia can cause nighttime temperatures to drop below freezing.
Each year, there are an average of 6. On average, 8. In summer and the beginning of autumn, the city is susceptible to typhoons.
The most pleasant seasons are generally spring, although changeable and often rainy, and autumn, which is usually sunny and dry.
See or edit raw graph data. Shanghai has a rich collection of buildings and structures of various architectural styles. Many areas in the former foreign concessions are also well-preserved, the most notable being the French Concession.
Despite rampant redevelopment, the Old City still retains some traditional architecture and designs, such as the Yu Garden , an elaborate Jiangnan style garden.
As a result of its construction boom during the s and s, Shanghai has among the most Art Deco buildings in the world. The Bund has been revitalized several times.
The first was in , with a new promenade by the Dutch architect Paulus Snoeren. The house is similar to western-style terrace houses or townhouses , but distinguishes by the tall, heavy brick wall and archway in front of each house.
The shikumen is a cultural blend of elements found in Western architecture with traditional Jiangnan Chinese architecture and social behavior. Vegetation can be grown in the courtyard, and it can also allow for sunlight and ventilation to the rooms.
Some of Shanghai's buildings feature Soviet neoclassical architecture or Stalinist architecture , though the city has fewer such structures than Beijing.
These buildings were mostly erected between the founding of the People's Republic in and the Sino-Soviet Split in the late s. During this time period, large numbers of Soviet experts, including architects, poured into China to aid the country in the construction of a communist state.
An example of Soviet neoclassical architecture in Shanghai is the modern-day Shanghai Exhibition Center.
Shanghai—Lujiazui in particular—has numerous skyscrapers , making it the fifth city in the world with the most skyscrapers.
The Shanghai Grand Theater. The Shanghai Exhibition Center , an example of Stalinist architecture. The Oriental Pearl Tower at night.
Like virtually all governing institutions in mainland China , Shanghai has a parallel party-government system,  in which the Party Committee Secretary , officially termed the Communist Party of China Shanghai Municipal Committee Secretary, outranks the Mayor.
Political power in Shanghai has frequently been a stepping stone to higher positions in the central government.
Officials with ties to the Shanghai administration collectively form a powerful faction in the central government known as the Shanghai Clique , which has often been viewed to compete against the rival Youth League Faction over personnel appointments and policy decisions.
Shanghai is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of the Government of the People's Republic of China ,  and is divided into 16 county-level districts.
Although every district has its own urban core, the city hall and major administrative units are located in Huangpu District, which also serves as a commercial area, including the famous Nanjing Road.
Many universities in Shanghai are located in residential areas in Yangpu District and Putuo District. Seven of the districts govern Puxi lit.
Pudong lit. Seven of the districts govern suburbs, satellite towns, and rural areas farther away from the urban core: Baoshan, [j] Minhang , [k] Jiading, [l] Jinshan, [m] Songjiang, [n] Qingpu, [o] and Fengxian.
Chongming District comprises the islands of Changxing and Hengsha and most—but not all [q] —of Chongming Island.
The former district of Nanhui was absorbed into Pudong District in In , Luwan District merged with Huangpu District.
As of [update] , these county-level divisions are further divided into the following township-level divisions : towns , 2 townships , and 99 subdistricts.
Those are in turn divided into the following village-level divisions : 3, neighborhood committees and 1, village committees.
Shanghai was the largest and most prosperous city in East Asia during the s, and its rapid redevelopment began in the s. The zone introduced a number of pilot reforms designed to incentivize foreign investment.
In April , The Banker reported that Shanghai "has attracted the highest volumes of financial sector foreign direct investment in the Asia-Pacific region in the 12 months to the end of January ".
As one of the main industrial centers of China, Shanghai plays a key role in domestic manufacturing and heavy industry. Tourism is a major industry of Shanghai.
In , the number of domestic tourists increased by 7. The conference and meeting sector is also growing.
Because the zone is not technically considered Chinese territory for tax purposes, commodities entering the zone are exempt from duty and customs clearance.
As of [update] , Shanghai had a total population of 24,,, including 14,, According to the Shanghai Municipal Statistics Bureau, about , residents in Shanghai are foreigners, including 28, Japanese, 21, Americans and, 20, Koreans.
Shanghai has a life expectancy of This has also caused the city to experience population aging —in , Due to its cosmopolitan history, Shanghai has a blend of religious heritage; religious buildings and institutions are scattered around the city.
According to a survey, only The remaining Buddhism, in its Chinese varieties , has had a presence in Shanghai since the Three Kingdoms period, during which the Longhua Temple —the largest temple in Shanghai—and the Jing'an Temple were founded.
Catholicism was brought into Shanghai in by Italian missionary Lazzaro Cattaneo. Ignatius Cathedral in Xujiahui—the largest Catholic church in the city,  the St.
They lived in a designated area called the Shanghai Ghetto and formed a community centered on the Ohel Moishe Synagogue, which is now the Shanghai Jewish Refugees Museum.
Islam came into Shanghai during the Yuan dynasty. Shanghai's Muslim population increased in the 19th and early 20th centuries when the city was a treaty port , during which time many mosques—including the Xiaotaoyuan Mosque , the Huxi Mosque , and the Pudong Mosque —were built.
The vernacular language spoken in the city is Shanghainese, a dialect of the Taihu Wu subgroup of the Wu Chinese family. This is different from the official Chinese dialect, Mandarin , which is mutually unintelligible with Wu Chinese.
At the time, most of the city's residents were immigrants from the two adjacent provinces, Jiangsu and Zhejiang, so Shanghainese was mostly a hybrid between Southern Jiangsu and Ningbo dialects.
After , Putonghua has also had a great impact on Shanghainese as a result of being rigorously promoted by the government. They often cannot speak the local language and therefore use Putonghua as a lingua franca.
Because Putonghua and English were more favored, Shanghainese began to decline, and fluency among young speakers weakened. In recent years, there have been movements within the city to promote the local language and protect it from fading out.
Shanghai is an international center of research and development and is ranked 5th globally and 2nd in the whole Asia and the Pacific after Beijing by scientific research, as tracked by the Nature Index.
By the end of , Shanghai had 64 universities and colleges, secondary schools, primary schools, and 31 special schools. Louis in which has since consistently been ranked as one of the best in the world.
In Shanghai, the nine years of compulsory education —including five years of primary education and four years of junior secondary education—are free, with a gross enrollment ratio of over Shanghai has an extensive public transportation system comprising metros, buses, ferries, and taxis, all of which can be accessed using a Shanghai Public Transport Card.
Shanghai's rapid transit system, the Shanghai Metro , incorporates both subway and light metro lines and extends to every core urban district as well as neighboring suburban districts.
As of [update] , there are 17 metro lines excluding the Shanghai maglev train and Jinshan Railway , stations , and With the first tram line been in service in , trams were once popular in Shanghai in the early 20th century.
Since the s, many tram lines were either dismantled or replaced by trolleybus or motorbus lines;  the last tram line was demolished in As of [update] , a total of 40, taxis were in operation in Shanghai.
Shanghai is a major hub of China's expressway network. Bicycle lanes are common in Shanghai, separating non-motorized traffic from car traffic on most surface streets.
However, on some main roads, including all expressways, bicycles and motorcycles are banned. In recent years, cycling has seen a resurgence in popularity due to the emergence of a large number of dockless app-based bicycle-sharing systems , such as Mobike , Bluegogo , and ofo.
Private car ownership in Shanghai is rapidly increasing: in , there were 3. The purpose of this policy is to limit the growth of automobile traffic and alleviate congestion.
Shanghai has four major railway stations: Shanghai railway station , Shanghai South railway station , Shanghai West railway station , and Shanghai Hongqiao railway station.
Built in , the Woosung railway was the first railway in Shanghai and the first railway in operation in China  By , Shanghai—Nanjing railway and Shanghai—Hangzhou railway were in service.
Shanghai is one of the largest air transportation hubs in Asia. In , Pudong International Airport served Since its opening, the Port of Shanghai has rapidly grown to become the largest port in China.
Although the port is run by the Shanghai International Port Group under the government of Shanghai, it administratively belongs to Shengsi County, Zhejiang.
Overtaking the Port of Singapore in ,  the Port of Shanghai has become world's busiest container port with an annual TEU transportation of 42 million in The culture of Shanghai was formed by a combination of the nearby Wuyue culture and the "East Meets West" Haipai culture.
Wuyue culture's influence is manifested in Shanghainese language—which comprises dialectal elements from nearby Jiaxing, Suzhou, and Ningbo—and Shanghai cuisine , which was influenced by Jiangsu cuisine and Zhejiang cuisine.
Cultural curation in Shanghai has seen significant growth since , with several new museums having been opened in the city.
It emphasizes the use of condiments while retaining the original flavors of the raw ingredients. Sugar is an important ingredient in Benbang cuisine, especially when used in combination with soy sauce.
Signature dishes of Benbang cuisine include Xiaolongbao , Red braised pork belly , and Shanghai hairy crab. It absorbed elements from French, British, Russian, German, and Italian cuisines and adapted them to suit the local taste according to the features of local ingredients.
Secular objects like flowers and birds were often selected as themes. Various art forms—including photography , wood carving , sculpture , comics Manhua , and Lianhuanhua —thrived.
Sanmao was created to dramatize the chaos created by the Second Sino-Japanese War. In addition, the Chinese Painting Academy features traditional Chinese painting ,  while the Power Station of Art displays contemporary art.
First held in , the Shanghai Biennale has become an important place for Chinese and foreign arts to interact. Traditional Chinese opera Xiqu became a popular source of public entertainment in the late 19th century.
In the early 20th century, monologue and burlesque in Shanghainese appeared, absorbing elements from traditional dramas. The Great World opened in and was a significant stage at the time.
Around the same time, a Shanghai-style Beijing Opera was formed. Drama appeared in missionary schools in Shanghai in the late 19th century. At the time, it was mainly performed in English.
Shanghai is considered to be the birthplace of Chinese cinema. The exile of Shanghainese filmmakers and actors as a result of the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Communist revolution contributed enormously to the development of the Hong Kong film industry.
Since , Shanghai has held its own fashion week called Shanghai Fashion Week twice every year in April and October. The main venue is in Fuxing Park , and the opening and closing ceremonies are held in the Shanghai Fashion Center.
The international presence has included many promising young British fashion designers. The Shanghai Cricket Club dates back to when the first recorded cricket match was played between a team of British Naval officers and a Shanghai Following a year dormancy after the founding of the PRC in , the club was re-established in by expatriates living in the city and has since grown to over members.
The Shanghai cricket team played various international matches between and With cricket in the rest of China almost non-existent, for that period they were the de facto China national cricket team.
Shanghai is home to many prominent Chinese professional athletes, such as basketball player Yao Ming,  meter hurdler Liu Xiang ,  table tennis player Wang Liqin ,  and badminton player Wang Yihan.
Shanghai is the host of several international sports events. The race is staged annually at the Shanghai International Circuit.
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Sonst kann es sein, dass das Mahjongg nicht aufgeht und man keine weiteren Zugmöglichkeiten mehr hat. Stellt sich das Problem, dass ein Mahjong-Stein eingeklemmt sein sollte, kann man sich damit behelfen, dass man zunächst eine andere Ecke des Spielfelds bearbeitet und somit an den fehleden Stein gelangt.
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Die Version 1. Sie verbreitete sich stark auf privaten Homepages im Internet. Neue Erweiterungen werden eingebaut und verschiedene Spielarten werden für ordentliche Abwechslung in der Zukunft sorgen.
Viel Spass beim Spielen, Sascha Noormann. Die letzten Geschehnisse Highscore System und Darstellung überarbeitet. Neue Highscore-Suche auf der Homepage noch nicht im Spiel!
Bereinigungen im Quellcode der serverseitigen Scripte. Kleine Änderungen am Pergament-Frame. Fix verhindert jetzt den unbeabsichtigten Abbruch von aktiven Dialogen.
Styleanweisung "opacity" für transparenz im Firefox abgeschaltet. Da dieser extrem langsam wird. Weiteren Fix im Event-Handling eingebaut.
Fix im Event-Handling. So läuft das MahJongg wieder im Firefox. Umstellung der Events für Tables und iPads. Das selektieren von Steinen auf mobilen Touchscreen-Geräten geht nun richtig schnell.
Eine schönere Darstellung im leichten Modus. Eine schönere Darstellung im Rahmen-Modus. Alle Spielfelder werden logisch aufgebaut.
Jedes Spielfeld kann ohne Hilfe von mischen gelöst werden. Es wurde ein Fehler bei der Vergabe der Typen für die Steine behoben! Erweiterte Konfigurationsmöglichkeiten Texte und Konfiguration in Deutsch.
Ein neues Bewertungssystem Unterschiedliche Spielflächen. Echte Zurück-Funktion inkl.On 1 JulyShanghai adopted a new garbage-classification system that sorts out waste into residual waste, kitchen waste, recyclable waste, and hazardous waste. East China Sea. Anzeige von Zeit Spiel Shanghai Punkte oben, Navigationselemente unten. Mahjong Shanghai Tipps Man sollte versuchen bei Mahjong Shanghai möglichst immer viele spielbare Steine freiliegen zu haben Tipico App Geht Nicht nicht nur einzelne Türme in der Mitte stehen lassen. Retrieved 11 December Archived from the original on 10 Wwm De Archived from the original on 29 May Sound wie früher. Achten Sie beim Aufrufen von www. The Independent. During Canelas 2010 time period, large numbers of Soviet experts, including architects, poured into China to aid the country in the construction of a communist state. Retrieved 5 June After the war, Shanghai's economy was restored—from tothe city's agricultural Kostenlose Zeitmanagement Spiele industrial output increased by